Various material on integrated chemical sensors
and other potentially related topics...
Various resaerch groups, companies:
Various work on "bioelectronics"
Future products - the Electronic Tongue
The next step for NST Artificial Senses technology is the NST Liquid
Analyser, "Electronic Tongue".
Prototypes of an Electronic Tongue developed at Linköping University
has shown that it can be used to classify various samples such as fruit
juices, still drinks and milk. Initial tests have shown that it is possible
to follow developments such as ageing processes of milk and orange juice
when stored at room temperature. Although these initial tests are not particularly
complicated, the possible range of applications for the Electronic Tongue
is believed to be as widespread as for the Electronic Nose.
Legin A.V., Rudnitskaya A.M., Vlasov Yu.G., Di Natale C., D'Amico A.;
"Electronic tongue" a multisensor device for on-site analysis
of complex liquids, The 9th International Conference on Modern Materials
and Technologies: CIMTEC '98 Florence 14-19 June, 1998
Use of surface plasmon microscopy in an electronic tongue. Surfaceplasmon
microscopy is a technique with which separate optical signals can be obtained
from hundreds of small portions of a chip. These signals will have a certain
relationship to the chemical composition of the water sample, if a chemically
sensitive substance is applied to the chip surface. The projects aims to
apply a large number of different sensitive substances to the different
portions of the chip. This will form the basis for the development of an
electronic tongue, which can give an impression of the chemical composition
of the water, in the same way as existing electronic noses do for the gas
phase. 3T, an engineering company and the MESA institute of the University
of Twente co-operate in this project.
Abstract Volume 361 Issue 3 (1998) pp 255-260 ; conference contribution:
Non-selective chemical sensors in analytical chemistry: from "electronic
nose" to "electronic tongue," Y. Vlasov, Andrey Legin, Laboratory
of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St.
Petersburg 199034, Russia
Received: 17 July 1997 / Revised: 19 February 1998 / Accepted: 24 February
Abstract Development, recent historical background and analytical applications
of promising sensor instruments based on sensor arrays with data processing
by pattern recognition methods have been described. Attention is paid to
the "electronic tongue" based on an array of original non-specific
(non-selective) potentiometric chemical sensors. Application results for
integral qualitative analysis of beverages and for quantitative analysis
of biological liquids and solutions, containing heavy metals are reported.
Discriminating abilities and precision obtained allow to consider "electronic
tongue" as a perspective analytical tool.
patent #5512490 : Optical sensor, optical sensing apparatus, and methods
for detecting an analyte of interest using spectral recognition patterns,
Walt; David R., Lexington, MA; Kauer; John S., Weston, MA, Assignee: Tufts;
ISSUED: Apr. 30, 1996; FILED: Aug. 11, 1994
- ABSTRACT: The present invention is an optical detection and identification
system and provides an optic sensor, an optic sensing apparatus and methodology
for detecting and evaluating one or more analytes or ligands of interest,
either alone or in admixture. The optic sensor of the system is comprised
of a supporting member and an array formed of heterogeneous, semi-selective
thin films which function as sensing receptor units and are able to detect
a variety of different analytes and ligands using spectral recognition
- pdf of claims, citations .
patent #4785814 : Optical probe for measuring pH and oxygen in blood
and employing a composite membrane, Kane; James, Miami, FL; ASSIGNEES:
Cordis Corporation, Miami, FL; ISSUED: Nov. 22, 1988.
- ABSTRACT: An optical probe is presented for use in measuring pH and
oxygen content in blood in a blood vessel within a living body. An elongated
flexible optical fiber means is provided which has a proximal end and a
distal end. The distal end is adapted to be inserted into a blood vessel.
A membrane is secured to the distal end of the optical fiber and receives
light from the distal end of the fiber and returns light therethrough to
the proximal end. The membrane is constructed of hydrophilic porous material
containing a pH sensitive dye. A plurality of microspheres are embedded
in and carried by the membrane. These microspheres are constructed hydrophobic
material and each carries a fluorescent dye quenchable with oxygen. Consequently,
when light is supplied to the proximal end of the optical fiber, it is
conveyed to the membrane. This causes the pH sensitive dye to react and
light is conveyed through the optical fiber having an intensity level indicative
of the pH level in the blood. The oxygen sensitive dye fluoresces and light
is transmitted to the proximal end of an intensity which varies with the
partial pressure of oxygen.
patent #5320814 : Fiber optic array sensors, apparatus, and methods
for concurrently visualizing and chemically detecting multiple analytes
of interest in a fluid sample, INVENTORS: Walt; David R., Lexington, MA;
Barnard; Steven M., Basel, Switzerland; ASSIGNEES: Trustees of Tufts College,
Medford, MA; ISSUED: June 14, 1994; FILED: Nov. 25, 1992.
- ABSTRACT: The present invention provides a unique fiber optic sensor
which is able to provide a viewing zone for visual examination of a sample
and its surrounding environment; and is able to conduct multiple assays
concurrently using a plurality of different dyes immobilized at individual
spatial positions within a dye sensing zone on the surface of the sensor.
The present invention also provides apparatus for making precise optical
determinations and measurements for multiple analytes of interest concurrently
and provides methods of detection for multiple analytes of interest which
can be correlated with specific parameters or other ligands for specific
applications and purposes.
- US Patent Number 5409666 : Title: Sensors
and methods for sensing; Patent Issue Date: 1995 04 25; Inventor(s): Nagel,
Colleen C. , MN; Bentsen, James G. , MN; Dektar, John L. , CA; Kipke, Cary
A. , MN; Yafuso, Masao , CA; Katritzky, Alan R. , FL; Assignee: Minnesota
Mining and Manufacturing Company , St. Paul, MN; No. of claims: 31 / No.
of figures: 4 / No. of drawing sheets: 4
- Abstract: A sensor for measuring the concentration of an analyte in
a medium is disclosed. In one embodiment, the sensor comprises a sensing
element including a matrix material and, covalently bonded thereto, one
or more monomeric indicator components each of which is capable of providing
a first emitted signal of a given wavelength in response to being exposed
to an excitation signal. The sensing element is capable of providing a
second emitted signal having a longer wavelength than the first emitted
signal or signals in response to being exposed to the excitation signal,
the second emitted signal being provided by an excimer component produced
in the sensing element from the monomeric indicator component(s) and being
dependent on the concentration of the analyte in the medium to a greater
extent than the first emitted signal or signals. In another embodiment,
the sensor comprises a sensing element including two or more different
monomeric components at least one of which is a monomeric indicator component
capable of providing a first emitted signal in response to being exposed
to a first excitation signal. The sensing element is capable of providing
a second emitted signal in response to being exposed to a second excitation
signal. This second emitted signal is provided by an exciplex produced
from the monomeric components. This second emitted signal is preferably
dependent on the concentration of the analyte in the medium. An excitation
assembly is positioned and adapted to provide the excitation signal to
the sensing element. A detector assembly is positioned and adapted to detect
the second emitted signal. Preferably, a processor assembly is positioned
and adapted to analyze the second emitted signal in determining the concentration
of the analyte in the medium.
Microchip drug delivery devices: Inventor(s): Santini, Jr.; John T.
, Jackson, MI Cima; Michael J. , Lexington, MA Langer; Robert S. , Newton,
MA; Applicant(s): Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA;
Issued/Filed Dates: Aug. 25, 1998 / July 2, 1996; IPC Class: A61K 009/22;
Class: 604/890.1; 604/093; Field of Search: 604/890.1,891.1,93 128/899;
Priority Number(s): US1996000675375
- Abstract: Microchips are provided, which control both the rate and
time of release of multiple chemical substances and which allow for the
release of a wide variety of molecules in either a continuous or pulsatile
manner. In all of the preferred embodiments, a material that is impermeable
to the drugs or other molecules to be delivered and the surrounding fluids
is used as the substrate. Reservoirs are etched into the substrate using
either chemical (wet) etching or ion beam (dry) etching techniques well
known in the field of microfabrication. Hundreds to thousands of reservoirs
can be fabricated on a single microchip using these techniques. The molecules
to be delivered are inserted into the reservoirs by injection or spin coating
methods in their pure form or in a release system. Exemplary release systems
include polymers and polymeric matrices, non-polymeric matrices, and other
excipients or diluents. The physical properties of the release system control
the rate of release of the molecules. The reservoirs can contain multiple
drugs or other molecules in variable dosages. The filled reservoirs can
be capped with materials that either degrade or allow the molecules to
diffuse passively out of the reservoir over time or materials that oxidize
and dissolve upon application of an electric potential. Release from an
active device can be controlled by a preprogrammed microprocessor, remote
control, or by biosensors.
- first claim: 1. A microchip device for the release of molecules comprising
a substrate, at least two reservoirs in the substrate containing the molecules,
and each reservoir having a reservoir cap positioned on the reservoir over
the molecules so that the molecules are released from the device by diffusion
through or upon disintegration of the reservoir caps, and wherein release
of the molecules from the reservoir is controlled by said diffusion through
or disintegration of the reservoir cap.
Assay device with captured particle reagent: Inventors: Smethers; Rick
T. , Fremont, CA; Warner; Brian D., Martinez, CA; Applicant(s): Chiron
Corporation, Emeryville, CA; Issued/Filed Dates: Jan. 17, 1995 / Aug. 23,
- Abstract: The invention describes an assay device and assembly for
detecting an analyte in a liquid sample. Each assay device in the assembly
includes structure defining a well, a ligand-coated particle, and a flexible
particle retaining structure for holding the particle in a captured position
within the well.
- Claim 1 of 9. An assay device for use in detecting an analyte in a
liquid sample by means of a detectable reaction that is related to the
amount of analyte present in the sample, comprising wall means defining
a well having a bottom wall and an upper opening through which such a reaction
can be detected, a particle having surface-bound ligand molecules for use
in analyte detection, said particle being supported on said bottom wall,
and flexible retaining means attached to said wall means, for retaining
said particle in a captured position within said well, when the retaining
means is in an undeformed condition, and which can be deformed to admit
said particle into the well.